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Endometrial tissue is the inner epithelial layer or lining tissue that grows within the uterus to protect a fertilized egg early in pregnancy. Endometriosis is a condition wherein there is an unnatural growth pattern of the endometrial tissue. The endometrial tissue of a patient with endometriosis can grow in other areas (outside the uterus), interrupting the normal functioning of the fallopian tubes or causing a growth in the ovaries, called endometrioma, that can affect follicle growth and impact the chances of a woman conceiving.

Symptoms of endometriosis could be pelvic discomfort during monthly periods, heavy menstruation, pain during intercourse and problems during urination.

To confirm endometriosis, a laparoscopy is conducted, wherein a telescope is inserted into the abdomen when the patient is under anesthesia. The presence of endometriotic cysts can be determined through ultrasound scanning.