Obstructive azoospermia is a condition that occurs when the sperm is being produced in the testes but cannot be found in the semen. This is because of a blockage in the male reproductive tract.

The main causes of obstructive azoospermia can include sexually transmitted diseases, scar tissue due to injuries, congenital or genetic conditions or because of previous surgeries.

One method of treatment is microsurgical vassal reconstruction. In obstructive azoospermia, sperm can still be retrieved by a form of surgical sperm retrieval or SSR procedure such as Testicular Sperm Aspiration or TESA that will then be paired with IVF.